As seen in SD Times.

bugSoftware teams are under pressure to deliver higher-quality software faster, but as high-profile failures and lackluster app ratings indicate, it’s easier said than done. With the tremendous growth of agile development, finding bugs earlier in the development cycle has become an imperative, but not all organizations are succeeding equally well.

“Developers realize they need better tools to investigate problems, but we need to make sure we’re not creating problems in the first place,” said Gil Zilberfeld, product manager of unit testing solution provider Typemock.

Software teams are using all kinds of tools, including bug and defect trackers, SCM tools, testing suites, and ALM suites, and yet software quality has not improved generally, according to William Nichols, a senior member of the technical staff at the Software Engineering Institute.

“The data don’t suggest that the software being produced is any better than it was a decade or 20 years ago, whether you measure it by lines of code or function points and defects,” he said. “We’re seeing one to seven defects per 1,000 lines of code. We’re making the same mistakes, and the same mistakes cause the same problems.”

One problem is focusing too much on the speed of software delivery rather than software quality. Nichols said this is a symptom of unrealistic management expectations. Tieren Zhou, founder and CEO of testing and ALM solution provider TechExcel, considered it a matter of attention: what’s sexy versus what matters.

“Bug fixing is less interesting than building features,” said Zhou. “In the interest of acquiring new customers, you may be losing old customers who are not happy with your products.”

While software failures are often blamed on coding and inadequate testing, there are many other reasons why software quality isn’t what it should be as evidenced by defects that are being injected at various points within the software life cycle.

Bug and defect tracking go agile

Bug and defect tracking is becoming less of a siloed practice as organizations embrace agile practices. Because agile teams are cross-functional and collaborative, tools are evolving to better align with their needs.

“We’re moving from isolation to transparency,” said Paula Rome, senior project manager at Seapine, a provider of testing and ALM solutions. “It makes no sense to have critical decision-making information trapped in systems.”

Since software teams no longer have weeks to dedicate to QA, developers and testers are working closer together than ever. While pair programming and test-driven development practices can help improve the quality of code, not every team is taking advantage of those and other means that can help find and fix defects earlier in the life cycle.

“There’s a need to find problems earlier, more often and faster, but what you’re seeing are .01 releases that fix a patch, or software teams using their customer base as a bug-tracking and bug-finding system,” said Archie Roboostoff, experience director for the Borland portfolio at Micro Focus, a software-quality tool provider.

Atlassian, maker of the JIRA issue and bug tracker, is helping teams get more insight into bugs with its latest 6.2 release. Instead of viewing bugs in “open” and “closed” terms, users can now see how many commits have been made, whether the peer reviews were success or not, and whether the code has been checked into production or not.

“The process of fixing a bug is a multi-stage process,” said Dan Chuparkoff, head of JIRA product marketing at Atlassian. “Developers check things out of the master branch, write some code, submit their code for peer reviews, peers comment on their code, the developers make some adjustments, check it into the master branch, and roll it up into production. Those steps are completely invisible in most bug systems so the stakeholders have trouble seeing whether something’s close to being finished or not.”

uTest (soon to be known as Applause) offers “in the wild” testing, which is a crowdsourced approach to quality assurance that enables organizations to find issues in production before their customers do.

Software teams are using the service to supplement their lab tests, although some, especially those doing three builds a week, are running lab and in-the-wild tests in parallel.

“In an agile world and in a continuous world, you want to make sure things are thoroughly tested and want to accelerate your sprints,” said Matt Johnston, chief strategy officer of uTest. “We help them catch things that were missed in lab testing, and we’re helping them find things they can’t reproduce.”

To keep pace with faster software release velocities, Hamid Shojaee, CEO of Scrum software provider Axosoft, is focusing on usability so individuals and teams can do a better job of resolving defects in less time.

“The custom pieces of information associated with each tracked bug are different for every team,” he said. “Creating custom fields has been a time-consuming and difficult thing to do when you’re customizing a bug-tracking tool. We have an intuitive user interface, so what would have taken you 20 to 30 minutes takes seconds.”

AccuRev is also enabling teams to spend less time using tools and more time problem-solving.

“Defect tracking can be cumbersome,” said Joy Darby, a director of engineering at AccuRev. “By the time software gets to QA, they have to ask questions or reference e-mails or look at a white board. With a central repository, you have instant access to all the artifacts, all the tests that were done, the build results, and any sort of complex code analysis you may have done.”

While more tools are evolving to support continuous integration and deployment, organizational cultures are not moving as quickly.

“While we’re all off iterating, the business is off waterfalling,” said Jeff Dalton, a Standard CMMI Appraisal Method for Process Improvement lead appraiser and CMMI instructor. “Software teams are accelerating their delivery cycles while the rest of the business still views software in terms of phases, releases, large planning efforts, large requirements, and 12-month delivery cycles.”

The disconnect between agile and traditional ways of working can work against software quality when funding is not tied to the outcome of sprints, for example.

Adopting a life cycle view of quality

As software teams become more agile, discrete workflows become collaborative ones that require a life-cycle view of software assets and interoperable tools. Even with the greater level of visibility life-cycle approaches provide, the root cause of problems nevertheless may be overlooked in the interest of finding and fixing specific bugs.

“We’ve inflated processes and tools in order to support something that could have been figured out earlier in the process if we had defined a better spec,” said Typemock’s Zilberfeld. “Instead, we spend five hours talking about something the customer doesn’t care about.”

Most ALM tools are open enough to support other tools whose capabilities equal or surpass what is in the ALM suite. Conversely, narrower tool providers are looking at bugs and defects in a broader sense because customers want to use the tools in a broader context than they have in the past.

“Software is no longer an isolated venture. It really affects all parts of the business,” said Atlassian’s Chuparkoff. “Modern issue trackers have REST APIs that allow you to easily connect your issue tracker to the entire product life cycle. We wanted to make sure JIRA can integrate with your proprietary tool and other tools via REST APIs or plug-ins from our marketplace. We realize people aren’t going to use JIRA in a silo by itself.”

Octo Consulting Group, which provides technology and management consulting services to federal agencies, is one of many organizations that are using JIRA in tandem with ALM solutions.

“Bug and defect tracking is part of ALM,” said Octo Consulting Group CTO Ashok Nare. “While we use JIRA, and there are a lot of good ALM products like Rally, VersionOne and CollabNet…the tools are really there to facilitate a process.”

Despite the broader life-cycle views, software quality efforts often focus on development and testing even though many defects are caused by ill-defined requirements or user stories.

“Philosophically, we didn’t use to think about bugs and defects in terms of requirements problems or customer problems or management problems, so we focused on code,” said CMMI’s Dalton. “But what we found was the code did what it was supposed to do, but didn’t do what the customer wanted it to do. It’s important to understand where the defect is injected into the process, because if we know that, we can change the process to fix it.”

Dalton prefers the process model approach, which includes prototypes, mockups and wireframes as part of requirements and the design process because they solve problems caused in the early stages when they’re the least costly to fix.

“Every time there’s an assumption or something fuzzy in the requirements it leads to defects,” said Adam Sandman, director at Inflectra (a maker of test-management software). “If you can’t define it, you can’t build it well.”

Inflectra, TechExcel, Seapine and the other ALM solution providers tie requirements, development, testing and other life-cycle stages together so that, among other things, defects can be identified, fixed and prevented from coming back in future iterations or releases.

“We’re connecting the dots, making it possible to have transparency between the silos so you get the data you need when you need it,” said Seapine’s Rome.

In addition to providing solutions, TechExcel is trying to help software teams deliver better products by promoting the concept of “QA floaters” who, as part of an agile team, help developers define test cases and run test cases in parallel with developers.

“When developers and QA floaters are both testing, you have a built-in process that helps you find and fix bugs earlier so the developer can satisfy a requirement or story,” said TechExcel’s Zhou. “When you tie in total traceability, you tie requirements, development and testing together in a way that improves productivity and software quality.”

Who owns software quality?
Software quality has become everyone’s job, but not everyone sees it that way, which is one reason why defects continue to fall through organizational cracks.

“When you separate the accountability and resources, that’s where disaster always starts,” said Andreas Kuehlmann, SVP of research and development at testing solution provider Coverity. “A lot of teams have gotten to the point where the developers are doing a little bit of testing, but the rest is tossed over the fence to QA who can’t even start the executable.”

Coverity offers three products that move testing into development: Quality Advisor, which uses deep semantic and static analysis to identify bugs in code when the code is compiling; Security Advisor, which uses the same technology to find security vulnerabilities; and Test Advisor which identifies the most risky code.

“Moving testing into development requires a lot to be done from a workflow perspective,” said Kuehlmann. “You have to have tests running 24×7, you have to have the tools and infrastructure in place, and you have to change developers’ mindsets. That’s really hard. The role of QA is evolving into more like a sign-off check.”

The dynamics between coders and testers is changing, but not in a uniform way. A minority of organizations are collapsing coding and testing into a single function, although the majority is leveraging the skill sets of both developers and QA with the goal of optimizing delivery speed and quality.

“Developers are really good at solving problems, and test engineers are good at finding vulnerabilities,” said Atlassian’s Chuparkoff. “If a developer can run an automated test after he finishes his code, he can fix the bug immediately while he’s in the thinking mode of fixing it. It’s a lot more efficient than fixing it four days later after someone gave you the issue.”

Annotated screen shots help speed up issue resolution, which is why Axosoft, Atlassian and Seapine have added the capability to their tools.

“You have to make sure people are taking the time to put the proper reproduction steps in to make sure those bugs are fixed,” said Axosoft’s Shojaee.

Not everyone on the team may be responsible for fixing defects, but many have the potential to inject them. Because software is increasingly the face of businesses, organizations are starting to realize that software quality isn’t a technical problem; it’s a business problem. For example, uTest’s Johnston recently met with the CIO of a major media company who considers software quality the CEO’s responsibility since a major portion of the company’s revenue is driven by digital experiences.

“If that sentiment can win the day, a lot more companies will be successful in the app economy,” said Johnston.

The complexity paradox
On one hand, the software landscape is becoming more complex, and at the same time, tools and approaches to software development are becoming more abstract, all of which can make finding and fixing defects more difficult.

“It’s not about Windows and Linux anymore,” said Inflectra’s Sandman. “Now you have all these mobile devices and frameworks, and you’re seeing constant updates to browsers. If you’re building systems with frameworks and jQuery plug-ins and something goes wrong, do you fix it, ask the vendor to fix it, or ask the open-source community to fix it? Inevitably the bugs may not be in your application but in the infrastructure you’re relying on.”

Micro Focus’ Roboostoff agreed. “If users see quality as something that works, and your product doesn’t work, then it’s hugely defective,” he said.

“When I had my Web server, application server and database server sitting in my office, I could rest assured a problem was somewhere in the closet and I’d find it eventually. Now, I might have some REST services sitting in Amazon, some service-based message in Azure, six CDNs around the world, and A/B testing for optimizing linking going on, and then on Monday morning half of my customers say something is slow.”

Because there is so much complexity and because the landscape is changing so fast at so many levels, edge-case testing is becoming more important.

“When you consider there are about 160,000 combinations of devices, browsers and platforms you have to test for, most customers aren’t coming close to where they should be,” said Roboostoff. “Since it isn’t practical, you pick the biggest screen and the smallest screen, the newest devices and the oldest devices to lower that risk profile.”

The fragmentation that is continuing to occur at so many levels can cause errors that are difficult to identify and rectify.

“One brand may have four to 10 different codebases, four to 10 product road maps, varying skill sets to accomplish all that, and a multitude of platforms and devices they are building software for that they have to test against,” said Johnston. “Meanwhile, users expect things to operate like a light switch.”

The U.S. government established a standardized approach to security assessment called the Federal Risk and Authorization Management Program (FedRAMP), which is apparently benefitting some software developers and consultants who need to be responsible for their software quality but are not in control of the cloud infrastructure. Octo Consulting Group’s Nare said that FedRAMP’s certification simplifies the testing he would otherwise have to do.

“As the level of abstraction goes up, if you’re only testing the top layer, you have to assume that the lower layers underneath like the infrastructure in the cloud and the PaaS are fundamentally sound so that everything is working the way it’s supposed to,” he said. “When we do security testing today and we test our applications, we don’t certify the whole stack anymore because the cloud service providers have already been certified. Otherwise you might have to write tests at the infrastructure of PaaS level.”

Meanwhile, most organizations are trying to wrap their arms around the breadth of testing and defect resolution practices necessary to deliver Web and mobile applications that provide the scalability, performance, and security customers expect.

“If you’re going to build better quality software faster, you need to make sure that the build actually works,” said Andreas Grabner, technology strategist at Compuware (an IT services company). “The software I write is more complex because it is interacting with things I can’t control.”

And that’s just the current state of Web and mobile development. With the Internet of Things looming, some tool providers expect that mainstream developers will have to write applications for devices other than smartphones, and as a result, system complexity and the related bug- and defect-tracking challenges will increase.

“If you think about the Web and the fragmentation of mobile devices, the complexity has increased by an order of magnitude,” said Johnston. “If you think about wearables or automobiles or smart appliances or smartwatches, it’s going to get exponentially worse.”

There’s no excuse for bad quality

There are many reasons why software quality falls short of user expectations, but the problem is that users don’t want to hear it. Even though every user complaint won’t make it to the top of a backlog, what customers consider “bugs” and “defects” have a nasty habit of making headlines, resulting in seething customer reviews and negatively impacted revenue.

“It’s unacceptable to tell users that you can’t reproduce a bug. These days they have all the cards,” said Johnston. “We live in a world where app quality—functional quality, usability quality, performance quality and security quality—are differentiators, and yet quality is still thought of as a cost center.”

Bug and defect tracking is all about problem-solving, but unfortunately some of the lingering problems aren’t being addressed despite impressive tool advancements because organizations change slower than technology does.

“I can have a product that’s completely bug free and has a great user experience, but if you get no value out of it, the quality is bad,” said Micro Focus’ Roboostoff. “People need to understand quality. It’s not about function; it’s about the customer perception of your product, your brand, and your company.”